Since GPIF is one of the largest public funds in the world, the suspension has attracted wide media coverage. The fund held a foreign equity portfolio worth $383 billion at the end of the first quarter of 2019, but has not disclosed securities lending revenue since 2017 and has collected $81 million in credit income this year. Calls to the fund were not returned. The first stock loan driver was the coverage of settlement errors. If a party fails to provide you with inventory, it may mean that you are not able to supply stocks that you have already sold to another party. In order to avoid the costs and penalties that may result from the failure of the transaction, the stock could be borrowed for payment and delivered to the second part. When your initial portfolio finally arrived (or was obtained from another source), the lender received the same number of shares to the secured loan. In an example of a transaction, a large institutional money manager with a position on a given stock allows these securities to be borrowed through a financial intermediary, usually an investment bank, a premium broker or another broker acting on behalf of one or more clients. After the loan of the stock, the customer – the short seller – could sell it briefly.
Their objective is to buy back the stock at a lower price and thus make a profit. By selling the borrowed shares, the short seller generates cash that becomes collateral paid to the lender. The current value of the security would be put on the market on a daily basis, allowing it to exceed the value of the loan by at least 2%. NB: 2% is the standard margin rate in the United States, while 5% are more common in Europe. Often, a bank acts as a lender, receives the cash and invests it until it has to be returned. Income from reinvested cash security is shared by paying a discount to the borrower and then distributing the balance between the securities lender and the agent bank. This allows large investment funds to earn additional income from their portfolios. If the lender is a pension plan, the transaction may be subject to various exceptions under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA).
 Some regulators have agreed. In December 2019, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) published a report that analyses short-term pressures on companies. The group considered arguments regarding the effects of short selling and securities lending practices and their potential link to short-term measures. In the case of securities lending, securities are classified according to their ability to absorb. High-liquidity securities are considered “light”; these products are easy to find on the market, someone should decide to borrow them for the purpose of selling them briefly. Securities that are illiquid in the market are considered “hard.” Due to various rules, short selling in the United States and some other countries must be preceded by the location of security and the amount that one wants to sell briefly to avoid bare short circuits.