The English, Spanish and French versions will be equally authentic and the agreement will enter into force after ratification by the three states through the adoption of enabling legislation.  Nafta contains three main dispute settlement mechanisms. Chapter 20 is the resolution mechanism from one country to another. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms and was maintained in the USMCA in its original NAFTA form. Such cases would involve complaints between USMCA member states for violation of a provision of the agreement.  Chapter 19 deals with the justification of anti-dumping or countervailing duties. Without Chapter 19, the remedy for the management of these policies would be through the national legal system. Chapter 19 provides that a USMCA body hears the case and acts as the international commercial court in mediating the dispute.  The Trump administration has attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new USMCA text, although it has been maintained so far in the agreement. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), signed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, Mexican President Carlos Salinas and U.S.
President George H.W. Bush, entered into force on January 1, 1994. NAFTA has created economic growth and a rising standard of living for the citizens of the three member states. By strengthening trade and investment rules and procedures across the continent, NAFTA has proven to be a solid foundation for building Canada`s prosperity. NAFTA replaced Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA). Negotiations on CUFTA began in 1986 and the agreement entered into force on 1 January 1989. The two nations agreed on a historic agreement that put Canada and the United States at the forefront of trade liberalization.